Bio Exam 2

What is the adaptive advantage provided by both furs and feathers?
Regulating temperature
True or False: Organ systems are found only in recently evolved deuterostomes, including chordates and vertebrates.
False
Of the animal groups listed below, which one evolved first?
sponges
Adaptations that provide an advantage in drier terrestrial habitats are seen in
reptiles but not amphibians
Which of the following is not a function of the echinoderm’s water vascular system?
regeneration
The advantage of a segmented body plan is that it allows for
specialized functions
Outside of the animal kingdom, our closest evolutionary relatives are probably in the kingdom Protista
True
Imagine that you have discovered a new species resembling a tunicate. If you wanted to confirm that this animal is a chordate, which of the following traits would you look for?
larval notochord
Consider an animal that has very different needs at different stages of its life—for example, one that is aquatic and carnivorous when young, then develops into an adult that is carnivorous and terrestrial. This animal can best be successful at both stages of its life by
undergoing metamorphosis
Which of the following is not an innovation specific to mammalian parental care?
internal fertilization
Cnidarians are a group of animals that have
two tissues but no organs
Tissues and symmetry are found in all animals except sponges.
True
Which of the following traits describe(s) protostomes?
bilateral symmetry at some point in the life cycle

three embryonic cell layers

embryonic mouth developing from the blastopore

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ventral nervous system with an anterior brain

Earthworms have complex organ systems for digestion and circulation.
True
Which of the following traits describe(s) deuterostomes?
Dorsal hollow nerve cord
Jellyfish and people are both animals, and so they share a number of key biological features characteristic of the entire kingdom. However, because of their distant ancestry, these two groups also exhibit important differences in body structure and function. Which of the following characteristics is present in humans but not in jellyfish?
Organ systems
A recent revision of the evolutionary tree suggests that the __________ are the closest living relatives of the now extinct dinosaurs.
bird
Among the more advanced animals, there are two distinct ways in which the basic body tissues become arranged during the development of a fertilized egg. In ________, such as insects and earthworms, the first opening to form in the embryo becomes the mouth, whereas in ________, such as humans and sea stars, the mouth forms from the second embryonic opening.
protostomes; deuterostomes
Which of the following animals is most closely related to an octopus?
snail
Evolutionarily speaking, to which of the following animal groups are you most closely related?
birds
A pH value of 0 represents the lowest possible concentration of free hydrogen ions in a solution.
False
The role of chemical buffers in living systems is to maintain the hydrogen ion concentration within narrow limits favorable for the internal environment of cells.
True
The molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is most closely related to which class of macromolecules?
nucleotides
H20 and CH4 are both examples of
molecules
A compound capable of forming hydrogen bonds with water
contains at least some polar covalent bonds.
Which of the following is not an example of a compound that would fall into the category of monomers?
DNA
What will happen if you add a mild acid to a solution that is buffered at pH = 7?
The pH will not change much.
Which of the following statements about covalently bonded molecules is false?
Opposing electrical charges hold the molecule together.
In which of the following molecules would you expect to find electrons shared between the atoms that make up the molecule?
water
hydrogen gas
methane
hydrogen sulfide
The strongest chemical linkages are found in molecules in which atoms are held together by ________ bonds.
covalent
The elements hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon
are common elements in the molecules that make up living organisms
In a saturated fat, you would expect to find all of the following except
double-bonded carbon atoms.
A solution with pH = 5 is ________ than a solution with pH = 7
100 times more acidic
Which of the following represents a polymer of amino acids?
Proteins
In a phospholipid bilayer, the hydrophobic tails of the phospholipid molecules are pointed outward so that they are in maximum contact with water.
are repelled by their like electric charges.
If two electrons come close to one another, they
False
Glucose is to cellulose as guanine is to
DNA
Which of the following would not be considered a type of sterol?
cellulose
Which of the following components would not be found in a typical phospholipid bilayer?
thymine
Proteins, DNA, and starch are all
carbon-based compounds.
polymers.
held together mainly by covalent bonds.
made of atoms that contain protons and electrons.
*Amniotic eggs are found in
Reptiles
Mammals
& Birds
****What types of intermolecular bonds are formed between biological molecules and hold them together?
Hydrogen Bonds
____ bonds are the strongest bonds formed between atoms.
Covalent
Which of these is not a mollusk?
jellyfish
squid
clam
snail
jellyfish
The main difference between the 20 amino acids is…
side chain
Two main types of cells are ________ and ______.
prokaryotic
eukaryotic
The boundary structure that physically defines a cell is the __________.
plasma membrane
Which of the following statements about water is true?
Hydrogen bonds and hydrophilic interactions are
Consider the protein depicted in Figure 5.17. Assume that the protein is made exclusively from hydrophobic amino acids. This protein would also be considered
What determines the folding pattern of a peptide turning into a completed protein?
sequence of amino acids (primary structure)
Lysosomes are specialized vesicles in ________ that contain digestive enzymes for the breakdown of food. A related organelle known as a “vacuole,” which is found in ________, also contains enzymes but in addition may act as a storage organelle for nutrients or water.
**
In which of the following cell organelles would you expect to find the biochemical reactions that harness energy from the breakdown of sugar molecules to synthesize large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)?
mitochondrian
The Golgi apparatus is one destination for substances that have been packaged into transport vesicles by rough ER.
true
Which of the following macromolecules are found in the plasma membrane?
**
Both chloroplasts and mitochondria
serve as a source of energy
You are asked to examine a cell using a powerful light microscope. The image you see has a clearly defined nucleus and mitochondria. It also has a large vacuole and mitochondria. From what group of organisms did this cell most likely come?
plants
In which of the following cell types would you see more cellular detail using an electron microscope than you would with a light microscope?
*all
Consider a protein that is destined to be embedded in the plasma membrane. This protein must first be assembled in the ________ and then transported to the ________ for processing and sorting.
ER
Golgi apparatus
According to the fluid mosaic model of cell membranes,
it is a highly mobile mixture of phospholipids and membrane proteins
In a microscope, you observe an organelle that consists of a series of interconnected tubes and appears to be connected to the outer membrane of the nucleus in a eukaryotic cell. What is the likely identity of this organelle?
Golgi apparatus
Which organelle is surrounded by a double phospholipid bilayer with many pores?
nuclear envelope
Proteins that are destined for insertion into a membrane are one product of the rough ER.
true
Which of the following organelles would likely have the lowest pH?
lysosome
Microtubules, motor proteins, and actin filaments are all part of the
cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells.
Which of the following structures would you expect to find in a bacterium?
plasma membrane
The best way to identify a cell as either prokaryotic or eukaryotic is to determine whether
it contains DNA enclosed within a membrane-bound compartment.
Which of the following statements about prokaryotes is false?
The substance known as “cytosol” is found within the bacterial nucleus.
Which of the following structures produces motion through the action of filaments that “slide” or “walk” parallel to each other?
eukaryotic flagella
eukaryotic cilia
Eukaryotic cells are more efficient than prokaryotes because their internal compartmentalization
allows for specialization through the subdivision of particular tasks.
In terms of basic structure, elephant cells and oak tree cells both
have mitochondria.
Where is the secreted protein insulin synthesized?
on the rough ER
Asexual reproduction is also called what?
binary fission
A physician suspects that a chromosomal abnormality is the cause of a patient’s disease. He orders a karyotype for this patient, which will allow the doctor to
-determine which chromosomes (maternal or paternal) are present in the patient’s cells.
Certain types of cell growth and repair can occur only with the involvement of a unique class of cells that can divide and remain unspecialized for the entire lifetime of an organism. These cells are known as
stem cells
The most important characteristic that distinguishes meiosis from mitosis is
the total number of chromosomes present in daughter cells.
The process through which a newly formed daughter cell becomes different from the original parent cell is
cell differentiation
Before a cell can enter mitosis, it must first pass through
interphase.
G1 phase.
G2 phase.
S phase.
You are asked to look at a microscope slide containing dividing human cells. Focusing on one of these cells, you note that it has 23 unduplicated chromosomes. This cell is most likely in which of the following stages of cell division
telophase of meiosis II
A normal diploid cell from a newly identified mammal has a total of 50 chromosomes. Which of the following statements about this cell is true?
The cell contains 24 homologous pairs of chromosomes plus the sex chromosomes.
In humans, mitosis
produces an exact genetic copy of the parent cell.
results in diploid daughter cells.
does not produce sperm or eggs.
makes daughter cells whose chromosomes are unduplicated.
A cell whose haploid number is 12 will have ________ chromosomes present at prometaphase of mitosis.
24
How many pairs of homologous chromosomes would be present in a cell undergoing metaphase II?
none
The key feature of metaphase in mitosis is that
individual chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell.
Cytokinesis, the physical act of cell separation, occurs by the same mechanism in both plants and animals.
False
Which of the following would not be found in cells undergoing anaphase II of meiosis?
homologous pairs of chromosomes
Which of the following statements about the G0 phase is true?
Cells in this phase do not have cell cycle regulatory proteins.
If you randomly removed a somatic cell from the human body, odds are that it would
have 46 chromosomes
The second division of meiosis is essentially
mitosis that begins with two diploid cells and ends with four haploid cells.
In Figure 10.5, what is the difference between the cell shown at the beginning of G2 phase and the one shown entering mitosis and cytokinesis?
cell size only
Consider a cell that begins meiosis with 30 total chromosomes. How many chromosomes will be present in each resulting daughter cell by the time the division process reaches metaphase II?
15
If you compare the chromosomes of a cell as it enters interphase with the same chromosomes just before the cell begins mitosis, a key difference would be
whether the chromosomes are duplicated.
The main difference between plant and animal cell division is that
cytokinesis takes place in different ways.
Which of the following is not rue about interphase?
doesn’t segregate DNA
Which of the following is true about homologous chromosmes?
one of each segregates to each daughter cell during mitosis
Meiosis ensures that
zygotes produced by fertilization have the normal number of chromosomes
x

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