Chapter 7- Axial Skeleton

Which of the following bones DOES NOT contain sinuses?
palatine
What landmark is found on the second cervical vertebrae?
odontoid process
Which of the following bones is not visible from the anterior view of the skull?
occipital
Bones in which of these areas protect the brain?
cranium
The coronal suture is found between the ___.
frontal and parietal bones
Which cranial bone articulates with every other cranial bone?
sphenoid
What is the purpose of the nucleus pulposus?
to absorb vertical shock
This cranial bone lies anterior to the sphenoid and posterior to the nasal bones. It contains foramina for the olfactory cranial nerve.
ethmoid
These projections on either side of the foramen magnum articulate with depressions on the first cervical vertebrae.
occipital condyles
Which sex exhibits an anteriorly oriented coccyx?
males
These bones house the organs of hearing and balance and articulate with the mandible.
temporal
The foramen lacerum is found between the ___.
sphenoid and temporal bones
The vertebral arch is made up of ___.
2 pedicles and 2 laminae
Which of the following bones contributes to the zygomatic arch (cheekbone)?
temporal
The mastoid process ___.
is the point of attachment for several neck muscles
When Joe was found dead, an autopsy revealed that his hyoid bone was fractured. What was the most likely cause of death?
strangulation
Which sex exhibits an inferiorly oriented coccyx?
females
Which of the following is not a facial bone?
occipital
The fontanels on a child’s skull are eventually replaced by osseous tissue by the process of ___.
intramembranous ossification
What is the function of depressions and openings?
allow passage of blood vessels and nerves or help form joints
What is the function of processes?
form joints or attachment points for connective tissue
Classify the following structures as part of the axial skeleton or the appendicular skeleton: skull, clavicle, vertebral column, shoulder girdle, humerus, pelvic girdle, and femur.
axial skeleton: skull, vertebral column; appendicular skeleton: clavicle, shoulder girdle, humerus, pelvic girdle, femur
Fissure
Narrow slit between adjacent parts of bones through which blood vessels or nerves pass
Foramen
Opening through which blood vessels, nerves, or ligaments pass
Fossa
Shallow depression
Sulcus
Furrow along a bone surface that accommodates a blood vessel, nerve, or tendon
Meatus
Tubelike opening
Condyle
Large, round protuberance at the end of bone
Facet
Smooth flat articular surface
Head
Rounded articular projection supported on the neck (constricted portion) of a bone
Crest
Prominent ridge or elongated projection
Epicondyle
projection above a condyle
Line
long, narrow ridge or border
Spinous Process
sharp, slender projection
Trochanter
very large projection
Tubercle
small, rounded projection
Tuberosity
Large, rounded, usually roughened projection
Cranial bones in adult skull
frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid
Facial bones
nasal, maxillae, zygomatic, mandible, lacrimal, palatine, inferior nasal conchae, vomer.
What are the functions of the cranial bones?
cranial bones: enclose and protect the brain, provide large areas for muscle attachment, protect and support the special sense organs;
What are the functions of the facial bones?
facial bones: form the face, protect and support the special sense organs
What function is served by foramina?
passageway for blood vessels, nerves, or ligaments
On which bones do eyeglasses normally rest?
nasal bones
What bones form the roof of the mouth? What is the anatomical name for the bony roof of the mouth?
(a) maxillae and palatine bones; (b) hard palate
Through which bones do tears travel from the eyes to the nasal cavity?
Lacrimal bones
What anatomical structure do the maxillae and mandible have in common?
alveolar processes
Which bone forms the inferior part of the nasal septum?
vomer
Which bone attaches to other skull bones by freely movable joints?
mandible
What are the components of the temporomandibular joint?
condylar process of the mandible articulates with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone
What structures make up the nasal septum? What kind of tissue composes the anterior portion of the nasal septum?
(a) vomer, septal cartilage, perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone; (b) hyaline cartilage
What are the locations and functions of the paranasal sinuses?
(a) frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, and maxillary bones; (b) produce mucus, light the skull, serve as resonating chambers for sound
What bones are joined by the squamous suture? The lambdoid suture? The coronal suture? The sagittal suture?
(a) parietal and temporal bones; (b) both parietal bones and the occipital bone; (c) frontal bone and both parietal bones; (d) the two parietal bones
Which fontanel is bordered by four different skull bones?
anterolateral fontanels
Following the birth of a baby, how many months are needed before all fontanels are ossified into sutures?
18 to 24 months after birth
What are the functions of the hyoid bone?
it supports the tongue and provides attachment sites for some tongue muscles and for muscles of the pharynx and larynx
What are the functions of the vertebral column?
encloses and protects the spinal cord, supports the head, serves as a point of attachment for the ribs, pelvic, girdle, and muscles of the back
Name the five types of vertebrae and state the number of each type.
(a) cervical (7), thoracic (12), lumbar (5), sacrum (1), coccyx (1)
What are the functions of the normal curves of the vertebral column? Which curves of the adult vertebral column are concave (relative to the anterior side of the body)?
(a) increase its strength, help maintain balance in the upright position, absorb shocks during walking, and help protect the vertebrae from fracture; (b) thoracic and sacral
What are the functions of the intervertebral discs?
form strong joints, permit various movements of the vertebral column, absorb vertical shock
What part of a vertebra is most responsible for supporting a person’s weight?
vertebral body
What are the components of the vertebral arch?
pedicles, laminae
Through what foramen does the spinal cord pass?
vertebral foramen
To which processes do muscles attach? Which processes attach to other vertebrae? Which parts of processes physically articulate with other bones?
(a) two transverse processes, a spinous process; (b) two superior articular processes and two inferior articular processes; (c) facets or demifacets
Which vertebrae contain transverse foramina? What function is served by transverse foramina?
(a) cervical; (b) allow passage of the vertebral artery to supply blood to the brain
How are the spinous processes different among cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae? Which cervical vertebra has the most prominent spinous process?
cervical: slender and often bifid processes; thoracic: long and fairly thick processes with most projecting inferiorly; lumbar: short, blunt, and project posteriorly rather than inferiorly
What are the names of the first and second cervical vertebrae?
atlas (first) and axis (second)
Which bones permit nodding of the head to indicate “yes”? Which permit the rotational movement of the head to indicate “no”?
(a) occipital bone and atlas; (b) axis and atlas
Which vertebrae articulate with ribs? Which parts of those vertebrae articulate with the ribs?
(a) thoracic vertebrae; (b) the body and transverse processes
Name the superior and inferior openings of the sacrum that extend the vertebral column. Which sacral structures unite with the hip bones?
(a) sacral canal and sacral hiatus; (b) auricular surface and sacral tuberosity
From superior to inferior, what are the three components of the sternum?
manubrium, body, xiphoid process
What bones articulate with the manubrium? What structures articulate with the body?
(a) clavicles, costal cartilage of first and second ribs, and body of the sternum (b) costal cartilages of the second through tenth ribs, manubrium, xiphoid process
What is the function of the xiphoid process?
provide attachment for some abdominal muscles
What component of the thoracic cage allows the thorax to expand and contract during breathing?
costal cartilage
How does a rib articulate with a thoracic vertebra? What is the space between two ribs called, and what is its clinical importance?
(a) by its head and the tubercle; (b) intercostal space; (c) it provides surgical access to the lungs or other structures in the thoracic cavity
x

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