Chapter 7; The Skeleton

Acetabulum
cup-like cavity on lateral surface of the hip bone that receives the femur
Achilles Tendon
tendon that attaches the calf muscles to the heelbone (calcaneus); see Calcaneal tendon
Axial
relating to the head, neck, and trunk; one of the two major divisions of the body
Calcaneal Tendon
tendon that attaches the calf muscles to the heelbone (calcaneus); also called the Achilles tendon
Cervical Vertebrae
the seven vertebrae of the vertebral column located in the neck
Cranium (Cranial Bones)
bony protective encasement of the brain and organs of hearing and equilibrium
Fontanelles
fibrous membranes at the angles of cranial bones that accommodate brain growth in the fetus and infant
Fovea
a pit
Intervertebral Discs
discs of fibrocartilage between vertebrae
Lamina
(1) a thin layer or flat plate; (2) the portion of a vertebra between the transverse process and the spinous process
Lumbar Vertebrae
the five vertebrae of the lumbar region of the vertebral column, commonly called the small of the back
Mandible
lower jawbone; U shaped, largest bone of the face
Meatus
external opening of a canal
Pectoral
pertaining to the chest
Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle
bones that attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton; includes the clavicle and scapula
Pelvic Girdle (Hip Girdle)
consists of the paired coxal bones that attach the lower limbs to the axial skeleton
Pelvis
(1) basin-shaped bony structure composed of the pelvic girdle, sacrum, and coccyx; (2) funnel-shaped tube within the kidney continuous with the ureter
Ramus
branch of a nerve, artery, vein, or bone
Sinus
(1) mucous-membrane-lined, air-filled cavity in certain cranial bones; (2) dilated channel for the passage of blood or lymph
Skull
bony protective encasement of the brain and the organs of hearing and equilibrium; includes cranial and facial bones
Thoracic Cage (Bony Thorax)
bones that form the framework of the thorax; includes sternum, ribs, and thoracic vertebrae
Thorax
that portion of the body trunk above the diaphragm and below the neck
Vertebral Column (Spine)
formed of a number of individual bones called vertebrae and two composite bones (sacrum and coccyx)
Name the major parts of the axial and appendicular skeletons and describe their relative functions.
The axial skeleton forms the longitudinal axis of the body. Its principle subdivisions are the skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage. It provides support and protection (by enclosure). The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the pectoral and pelvic girdles and the limbs. It allows mobility for manipulation and locomotion.
What are the three main parts of the axial skeleton?
The three main parts of the axial skeleton are the skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage.
Which part of the skeleton — axial or appendicular — is important in protecting internal organs?
The axial skeleton is more important in protecting internal organs.
Name, describe, and identify the skull bones. Identify their important markings.
The skull is formed by 22 bones. Except for the temporomadibular joints, all bones of the adult skull are joined by immovable structures.
— Cranium — The eight (8) bones of the cranium include the paired parietal and temporal bones and the single frontal, occipital ethmoid, and sphenoid bones.
— Facial Bones — The fourteen (14) bones of the face include the paired maxillae, zygomatics, nasals, lacrimals, palatines, and inferior nasal conchae and the single mandible and vomer bones.
Compare and contrast the major functions of the cranium and the facial skeleton.
The cranium forms the vault and base of the skull, which protect the brain. The facial skeleton provides opening for the respiratory and digestive passages and attachment points for facial muscles.
Which of the skull bones are cranial bones?
The frontal, parietal, temporal, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones are all cranial bones.
Which bone forms the crista galli?
The ethmoid bone forms the crista galli.
Which skull bones house the external ear canals?
The temporal bones house the external ear canals.
What bones abut one another at the sagittal suture? An the lambdoid suture??
The parietal bones abut each other at the sagittal suture. The occipital bone abuts the parietal bone at the lambdoid suture.
Women with prominent (high) cheekbones are often considered beautiful by the modeling industry. What bones are the “cheekbones?”
The zygomatic bones are the cheekbones.
Johnny was vigorously exercising the only joints in the skull that are freely movable. What would you guess he was doing?
Eating or talking, because the only freely movable joints of the skull are the temporomandibular joints of the jaw.
What bones are the keystone bones of the facial skeleton?
The maxillae are the keystone bones of the facial skeleton.
Define the bony boundaries of the orbits, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses.
Orbits and Nasal Cavity — Both the orbits and the nasal cavities are complicated bony regions formed of several bones.
Paranasal Sinuses — Paranasal sinuses occur in the frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, and maxillary bones.
Hyoid Bone — The hyoid bone, supported in the neck by ligaments, serves as an attachment point for tongue and neck muscles.
What bones contain the paranasal sinuses?
The sphenoid, ethmoid, frontal, and maxillary bones contain paranasal sinuses.
The perpendicular plates of the palatine bones and the superior and middle conchae of the ethmoid bone form a substantial part of the nasal cavity walls. Which bone forms the roof of that cavity?
The cribriform plates of the ethmoid bone form the roof of the nasal cavity.
What bone forms the bulk of the orbit floor and what sense organ is found in the orbit of a living person?
The maxillae form the bulk of the orbit floor. The eye is housed in the orbit.
Describe the structure of the vertebral column, list its components, and describe its curvatures.
General Characteristics – The vertebral column includes twenty-four (24) movable vertebrae (7 cervical, 12 thoracic, and 5 lumbar) and the sacrum and coccyx. The primary curvatures of the vertebral column are the thoracic and sacral; the secondary curvatures are the cervical and lumbar.
Indicate a common function of the spinal curvatures and the intervertebral discs.
Curvatures increase spine flexibility. The fibrocartilage intervertebral discs act as shock absorbers and provide flexibility to the vertebral column.
What are the five major regions of the vertebral column?
The five major regions of the vertebral column are the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal regions.
In which two regions of the vertebral column is the vertebral column concave posteriorly?
The cervical and lumbar regions are concave posteriorly.
Besides the spinal curvatures, which skeletal elements help to make the vertebral column flexible?
The fibrocartilage discs contribute to the flexibility of the vertebral column.
Discuss the structure of a typical vertebra and describe regional features of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae.
With the exception of C? and C?, all vertebrae have a body, two transverse processes, two superior and two inferior articular processes, a spinous process, and a vertebral arch.
— Cervical —
Body: small, wide side-to-side
Spinous Process: short; bifid; projects directly posterior
Vertebral Foramen: triangular
Transverse Processes: contains foramina
Superior and Inferior Articular Processes: superior facets directed superiorposteriorly; inferior facets directed inferoanteriorly
Movements Allowed: flexion and extension; lateral flexion; rotation; the spine region with the greatest range of movement
— Thoracic —
Body: larger than cervicle; heart-shaped; bears two costal facets
Spinous Process: long; sharp; projects inferiorly
Vertebral Foramen: circular
Transverse Processes: bear facets for ribs (except T?? and T??)
Superior and Inferior Articular Processes: superior facets directed posteriorly; inferior facets directed anteriorly
Movements Allowed: rotation; lateral flexion possible but restricted by ribs; flexion and extension limited
— Lumbar —
Body: massive; kidnet-shaped
Spinous Process: short; blunt; rectangular; projects directly posteriorly
Vertebral Foramen: triangular
Transverse Processes: thin and tapered
Superior and Inferior Articular Processes: superior facets directed posteriomedially (or medially); inferior facets directed anteriolaterally (or laterally)
Movements Allowed: flexion and extension; some lateral flexion; rotation prevented
What is the normal number of cervical vertebrae? Of thoracic vertebrae??
There are seven (7) cervical and twelve (12) thoracic vertebrae.
How would a complete fracture of the dens affect the mobility of the vertebral column?
The dens is the axis on which the atlas rotates. If it’s broken, movements of the atlas would be less controllable.
How can you distinguish a lumbar vertebrae from a thoracic vertebrae?
A lumbar vertebrae is heavier and its massive body is kidney-shaped. Its spinous processes are short and project directly back. A thoracic vertebral body is generally heart-shaped, its spinous process is long, sharp, and points downward, and its transverse processes have facets for articulating with the ribs.
Name and describe the bones of the thoracic cage (bony thorax).
The bones of the thoracic cage include the twelve (12) rib pairs, the sternum, and the thoracic vertebrae. The thoracic cage protects the organs of the thoracic cavity. the sternum consists of the fused manubrium body, and xiphoid process.
Differentiate true from false ribs.
The first seven (7) rib pairs are called true ribs; the rest are called false ribs. Ribs 11 and 12 are floating ribs.
How does a true rib differ from a false rib?
A true rib connects to the sternum by its own costal cartilage. A false rib connects to the sternum via coastal cartilages of other ribs or not at all.
What is the sternal angle and what is its clinical importance?
The sternal angle is a ridge across the front of the sternum where the manubrium joins the sternal body. It acts as a hinge allowing the sternum to swing anteriorly when we inhale. Because it is aligned with the second rib, it is a handy cue for finding the rib and then counting the ribs during a physical exam.
Besides the ribs and sternum, there is a third group of bones making up the thoracic cage. What is it?
The thoracic vertebrae also contribute to the thoracic cage.
Identify bones forming the pectoral girdle and relate their structure and arrangement to the function of this girdle.
Each pectoral girdle consists of one clavicle and one scapula. The pectoral girdle attach the upper limbs to the axial skeleton. The clavicles hold the scapulae laterally away from the thorax. The sternoclavicular joints are the only attachment points of the pectoral girdle to the axial skeleton. The scapulae articulate with the clavicles and with the humerus bones of the arms.
Identify important bone markings on the pectoral girdle.
— Clavicle — acromial end; sternal end
— Scapula — glenoid cavity; spine; acromion; coracoid process; infraspinous; supraspinous; and subscapular fossae
What two bones construct each pectoral girdle?
Each pectoral girdle is formed by a scapula and a clavicle.
Where is the single point of attachment of the pectoral girdle to the axial skeleton?
The pectoral girdle attaches to the sternal manubrium of the axial skeleton via the medial end of its clavicle.
What is the major shortcoming of the flexibility allowed by the shoulder joint?
A consequence of its flexibility is that it is easily dislocated.
Identify and name the bones of the upper limb and their important markings.
Each upper limb consists of thirty (30) bones and its specialized for mobility. The skeleton of the arm is composed solely of the humerus; the skeleton of the forearm is composed of the radius and ulna; and the skeleton of the hand consists of the carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges.
— Humerus — head; greater and lesser tubercles; intertubercular sulcus; radial grrove; deltoid tuberocity; trochlea; capitulum; coronoid and olecranon fossae; epicondyles; radial fossae
— Ulna — coronoid process; olecranon; radial notch; trochlear notch; ulnar styloid process; head
— Radius — head; radial tuberocity; radial styloid process; ulnar notch
Which bones play a major role in forming the elbow joint?
Together the ulna and humerus form the elbow joint.
Which bones of the upper limb have a styloid process?
The ulna and the radius each have a styloid process distally.
Where are carpals found and what type of bone (short, irregular, long, or flat) are they?
Carpals are found in the proximal region of the palm. They are short bones.
Name the bones contributing to the os coxae, and relate the pelvic girdle’s strength to its function.
The pelvic girdle, a heavy structure specialized for weight bearing, is composed of two hip bones and the sacrum. It secures the lower limbs to the axial skeleton. Each hip bone consists of three fused bones; ilium, ischium, and pubis. The acetabulum occurs at the point of fusion. The ilium is the superior flaring portion of the hip bone. Each ilium forms a secure joint with the sacrum posteriorly. The ischium is a curved bar of bone; we sit on the ischial tuberosities. The v-shaped pubic bones articulate anteriorly at the pubic symphysis.
Describe differences in the male and female pelves and relate these to functional differences.
The pelvis is the deep, basin-like structure formed by the hip bones, sacrum, and coccyx. The male pelvis is deep and narrow with larger, heavier bones than those of the female. The female pelvis, which forms the birth canal, is shallow and wide.
The ilium and pubis help to form the os coxae. What other bone is involved in forming the os coxae?
The third bone of the os coxae is the ischium.
The pelvic girdle is a heavy, strong girdle. How does its structure reflect its function?
The pelvic girdle receives the weight of the upper body (trunk, head, and upper limbs) and transmits that weight to the lower limbs.
Which of the following terms or phrases refer to the female pelvis? Wider, shorter sacrum; cavity narrow and deep; narrow heart-shaped inlet; more movable coccyx; long ischial spines.
The female pelvis is wider and has a shorter sacrum and a more moveable coccyx.
Identify the lower limb bones and their important markings.
Each lower limb consists of the thigh, leg, and foot and is specialized for weight bearing and locomotion. The femur is the only bone of the thigh. Its ball-shaped head articulates with the acetabulum. The bones of the leg are the tibia which participates in forming both the knee and ankle joints, and the fibula. The bones of the foot include the tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges. The most important tarsals are the calcaneus (heel bone) and the talus, which articulates with the tibia superiorly. The foot is supported by three arches (lateral, medial, and transverse) that distribute body weight to the heel and ball of the foot.
— Femur — head; greater and lesser trochanters; neck; lateral and medial condyles and epichondyles; gluteal tuberosity; linea aspera
— Tibia — medial and lateral condyles; tibial tuberocity; anterior border; medial malleolus
What lower limb bone is the second largest bone in the body?
The tibia is the second largest bone in the body.
Where is the medial malleolus located?
The medial melleolus is located on the distalmost medial aspect of the tibia.
Which of the following sites is not a site of muscle attachment? Greater trochanter, lesser trochanter, gluteal tuberosity, or lateral condyle.
The lateral condyles are not sites of muscle attachment, they are articular surfaces.
Besides supporting our weight, what is a major function of the arches of the foot?
Because of their springiness, the foot arches save energy during locomotion.
What are the two largest tarsal bones in each foot, and which one forms the heel of the foot?
The two largest tarsals are the talus and the calcaneous, which forms the heel.
Define fontanelles and indicate their significance.
Fontanelles, which allow brain growth and ease birth passage, are present in the skull at birth. Growth of the cranium after birth is related to brain growth. Increase in size of the facial skeleton follows tooth development and enlargement of nose and sinus cavities
Describe how skeletal proportions change through life.
The vertebral column is C-shaped at birth (thoracic and sacral curvatures are present); the secondary curvatures form when the baby begins to life its head and walk. Long bones continue to grow in length until late adolescence. The head and torso, initially 1 1/2 times the length of the lower limbs, equal their length by the age of 10. Changes in the female pelvis (preparatory for childbirth) occur during puberty. Once at adult height, the skeleton changes little until late middle age.
Discuss how age-related skeletal changes may affect health.
With old age, the intervertebral discs thin; this, along with osteoporosis, leads to the gradual loss in height and increased risk of disc herniation. Loss of bone mass increases the risk of fractures, and thoracic cage rigidity promotes breathing difficulties.
What developmental events result in a dramatic enlargement of the facial skeleton between the ages of 6 and 13?
The enlargement of the facial skeleton between age 6 and 13 is due to the enlargement of the nose and paranasal sinuses and the development of the permanent teeth.
Under what conditions does the lumbar curvature of the spine develop?
The lumbar curvature develops when the baby begins to walk.
Which bone(s) are connected by the coronal suture?
a. ethmoid
b. frontal
c. mandible
d. maxillary
e. occipital
f. palatine
g. parietal
h. sphenoid
i. temporal
frontal and parietal
Which bone(s) are keystone bones of the cranium?
a. ethmoid
b. frontal
c. mandible
d. maxillary
e. occipital
f. palatine
g. parietal
h. sphenoid
i. temporal
sphenoid
Which bone(s) are keystone bones of the face?
a. ethmoid
b. frontal
c. mandible
d. maxillary
e. occipital
f. palatine
g. parietal
h. sphenoid
i. temporal
maxillary
Which bone(s) form the hard palate?
a. ethmoid
b. frontal
c. mandible
d. maxillary
e. occipital
f. palatine
g. parietal
h. sphenoid
i. temporal
maxillary and palatine
Which bone(s) allow the spinal cord to pass?
a. ethmoid
b. frontal
c. mandible
d. maxillary
e. occipital
f. palatine
g. parietal
h. sphenoid
i. temporal
occipital
Which bone(s) forms the chin?
a. ethmoid
b. frontal
c. mandible
d. maxillary
e. occipital
f. palatine
g. parietal
h. sphenoid
i. temporal
mandible
Which bone(s) contain paranasal sinuses?
a. ethmoid
b. frontal
c. mandible
d. maxillary
e. occipital
f. palatine
g. parietal
h. sphenoid
i. temporal
ethmoid, frontal, maxillary, and sphenoid
Which bone(s) contain mastoid sinuses?
a. ethmoid
b. frontal
c. mandible
d. maxillary
e. occipital
f. palatine
g. parietal
h. sphenoid
i. temporal
temporal
Which term is best described by “bone of the axial skeleton to which the pectoral girdle attaches?”
a. clavicle
b. ilium
c. ischium
d. pubis
e. sacrum
f. scapula
g. sternum
sternum
Which term is best described by “markings that include glenoid cavity and acromion?”
a. clavicle
b. ilium
c. ischium
d. pubis
e. sacrum
f. scapula
g. sternum
scapula
Which term is best described by “features include the ala, crest, and greater sciatic notch?”
a. clavicle
b. ilium
c. ischium
d. pubis
e. sacrum
f. scapula
g. sternum
ilium
Which term is best described by “doubly curved; acts as a shoulder strut?”
a. clavicle
b. ilium
c. ischium
d. pubis
e. sacrum
f. scapula
g. sternum
clavicle
Which term is best described by “hip bone that articulates with the axial skeleton?”
a. clavicle
b. ilium
c. ischium
d. pubis
e. sacrum
f. scapula
g. sternum
ilium
Which term is best described by “the “sit-down” bone?”
a. clavicle
b. ilium
c. ischium
d. pubis
e. sacrum
f. scapula
g. sternum
ischium
Which term is best described by “anteriormost bone of the pelvic girdle?”
a. clavicle
b. ilium
c. ischium
d. pubis
e. sacrum
f. scapula
g. sternum
pubis
Which term is best described by “part of the vertebral column?”
a. clavicle
b. ilium
c. ischium
d. pubis
e. sacrum
f. scapula
g. sternum
sacrum
Which term is best described by “articulates with the acetabulum and the tibia?”
a. carpals
b. femur
c. fibula
d. humerus
e. radius
f. tarsals
g. tibia
h. ulna
femur
Which term is best described by “forms the lateral aspect of the ankle?”
a. carpals
b. femur
c. fibula
d. humerus
e. radius
f. tarsals
g. tibia
h. ulna
fibula
Which term is best described by “bone that “carries” the hand?”
a. carpals
b. femur
c. fibula
d. humerus
e. radius
f. tarsals
g. tibia
h. ulna
radius
Which term is best described by “wrist bones?”
a. carpals
b. femur
c. fibula
d. humerus
e. radius
f. tarsals
g. tibia
h. ulna
carpals
Which term is best described by “end shaped like a monkey wrench?”
a. carpals
b. femur
c. fibula
d. humerus
e. radius
f. tarsals
g. tibia
h. ulna
ulna
Which term is best described by “articulates with the capitulum of the humerus?”
a. carpals
b. femur
c. fibula
d. humerus
e. radius
f. tarsals
g. tibia
h. ulna
radius
Which term is best described by “largest bone of this “group” is the calcaneus?”
a. carpals
b. femur
c. fibula
d. humerus
e. radius
f. tarsals
g. tibia
h. ulna
tarsals
Where is the location of the parietal bone?
cranial bone
Where is the location of the mandible bone?
facial bone
Where is the location of the radius?
arm
Where is the location of the ilium?
pelvic girdle
Where is the location of the clavicle?
pectoral girdle
What are the auditory ossicles?
middle ear bones
What is the C??
first cervical vertebra
What is the calcaneus?
heel bone
What is the patella?
kneecap
What is the capitate?
carpal bone
What is the frontal bone?
forehead
What is the coxal bone?
hip
What is the zygomatic bone?
cheekbone
What is the scapula?
shoulder blade
What is the tibia and fibula?
leg
What forms the posterior hard palate?
palatine bone
What forms the chin?
mandible
What are the keystone bones of the face?
maxillae
What contains mastoid sinuses?
temporal
What allows the spinal cord to pass to the brain?
occipital
What articulates with the acetabulum and the tibia?
femur
What are the wrist bones?
carpals
What articulates with the capitulum of the humerus?
radius
What of the largest bone of this group is the calcaneus?
tarsals
What has an end shaped like a wrench?
ulna
Which disorder is described by abnormal lateral spinal curvature that occurs most often in the thoracic region, or “twisted disease”?
scoliosis
Which disorder is described by dorsally exaggerated thoracic curvature, or “hunch back”?
kyphosis
Which disorder is described by an accentuated lumbar curvature, or swayback?
lordosis
Which disorder is described by common in those carrying a “large load up front, ” such as men with “potbellies” and pregnant women?
temporary lordosis
As you proceed from the head down the vertebral column, the vertebrae become larger and heavier.
a. True
b. False
True
Damage to the temporal bone could affect the sense of hearing.
a. True
b. False
True
Differences in the skeleton of males and females can best be seen in the characteristics of the pelvis.
a. True
b. False
True
Improper administration of CPR can force the floating ribs into the liver.
a. True
b. False
False
Most humans have 10 pairs of ribs.
a. True
b. False
False
Ribs that have no connection to the sternum are called the false ribs.
a. True
b. False
False
Studying human skeletons can reveal information concerning sex, age, nutritional status, and size.
a. True
b. False
True
The axial skeleton includes the bones of the upper and lower extremities and the girdles.
a. True
b. False
False
The bones of the forearm are also called antebrachium.
a. True
b. False
True
The os coxae is formed by the fusion of four bones.
a. True
b. False
False
The fibrocartilage of the intervertebral disc is called the anulus fibrosus.
a. True
b. False
True
The first cervical vertebra is also known as the axis.
a. True
b. False
False
The sacrum is composed of five fused vertebrae.
a. True
b. False
True
The thickest intervertebral discs are found in the sacral region.
a. True
b. False
False
At its proximal end, the humerus articulates with the ulna and radius.
a. True
b. False
False
The scapula articulates with the clavicle at the acromial end.
a. True
b. False
True
An injury to the lateral side of your ankle would involve the tibia.
a. True
b. False
False
The linea aspera is found on the posterior of the femur.
a. True
b. False
True
The clavicle is part of the axial skeleton.
a. True
b. False
False
The vertebrae are part of the axial skeleton.
a. True
b. False
True
The ossa coxae make up the bony pelvis.
a. True
b. False
False
The role of the cranium is to __________.
a. secure the teeth
b. anchor facial muscles
c. enclose and protect the brain
d. provide openings for food and air passage
enclose and protect the brain
A joint between skull bones is called a __________.
a. suture
b. plate
c. margin
d. zone
suture
Which of the following is the most deeply situated bone in the skull?
a. ethmoid bone
b. lacrimal bone
c. temporal bone
d. sphenoid bone
ethmoid bone
What forms apart of the nasal septum?
a. sphenoid bone
b. ethmoid bone
c. temporal bone
d. frontal bone
e. parietal bone
f. occipital bone
ethmoid bone
What encloses the pituitary?
a. sphenoid bone
b. ethmoid bone
c. temporal bone
d. frontal bone
e. parietal bone
f. occipital bone
sphenoid bone
What forms the bulk of the cranial ceiling?
a. sphenoid bone
b. ethmoid bone
c. temporal bone
d. frontal bone
e. parietal bone
f. occipital bone
parietal bone
What surrounds the external ear canal?
a. sphenoid bone
b. ethmoid bone
c. temporal bone
d. frontal bone
e. parietal bone
f. occipital bone
temporal bone
What is the most anterior part of the cranium?
a. sphenoid bone
b. ethmoid bone
c. temporal bone
d. frontal bone
e. parietal bone
f. occipital bone
frontal bone
What forms most of the base of the skull?
a. sphenoid bone
b. ethmoid bone
c. temporal bone
d. frontal bone
e. parietal bone
f. occipital bone
occipital bone
Which of the following is a facial bone?
a. vomer
b. sphenoid bone
c. occipital bone
d. parietal bone
e. temporal bone
vomer
The only bone of the facial skeleton that does NOT articulate with the maxillae is the __________.
a. vomer
b. mandible
c. zygomatic bone
d. lacrimal bone
mandible
Which of the following bones does NOT form a part of the orbits of the eyes?
a. ethmoid
b. lacrimal
c. vomer
d. maxilla
e. frontal
vomer
The only bone of the body that does NOT articulate directly with any other bone is the __________.
a. ethmoid bone
b. lacrimal bone
c. palatine bone
d. hyoid bone
hyoid bone
How many cervical vertebrae are there in a normal adult?
a. ten (10)
b. five (5)
c. twelve (12)
d. seven (7)
seven (7)
The inferior end of the vertebral column is composed of the __________.
a. lumbar vertebrae
b. coccyx
c. sacrum
d. thoracic vertebrae
coccyx
Which of the following is characterized by a ruptured anulus fibrosis?
a. scoliosis
b. lordosis
c. osteoporosis
d. herniated disc
herniated disc
The vertebral disc is housed between the __________ of the vertebrae.
a. bodies
b. laminae
c. intervertebral foramina
d. vertebral foramina
bodies
A human normally has ten pairs of ribs.
a. True
b. False
False
The vertebrae that have enhanced weight-bearing capability are the __________.
a. lumbar vertebrae
b. thoracic vertebrae
c. vertebrae of the coccyx
d. cervical vertebrae
lumbar vertebrae
Choose the MISMATCHED pairing.
a. surgical neck: humerus
b. radial tuberosity: radius
c. deltoid tuberosity: humerus
d. styloid process: humerus
styloid process: humerus
The female pelvis __________.
a. is tilted anteriorly (forward) compared to a male pelvis
b. has a narrower pelvic inlet than a male pelvis
c. has a narrower pelvic outlet than a male pelvis
d. has a narrower sacrum than a male pelvis
is tilted anteriorly (forward) compared to a male pelvis
The gluteal tuberosity is a bone marking found on the__________.
a. patella
b. tibia
c. femur
d. fibula
femur
The heel bone is called the __________.
a. tarsal
b. cuboid
c. talus
d. calcaneus
calcaneus
Which of the following does NOT correlate with the skull growth spurt that is seen between the ages of 6 and 13?
a. expansion of the nose
b. development of the permanent teeth
c. expansion of the paranasal sinuses
d. replacement of the fontanelles with bone
replacement of the fontanelles with bone

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