Cranial Nerves flash card

brain stem
the cell bodies of the cranial motor nuclei are found throughout the:
ganglia
the cell bodies for the first-order sensory cranial nuclei are found in:
somatic motor neurons
found in CN 3,4,6,12 and innervate the extraocular muscles of the eyeball and intrinsic muscles of the tongue
general, special visceral
two classes of autonomic motor neurons in cranial nerves:
general visceral
preganglionic motor neuron of the cranial portion of the parasympathetic nervous system found in CN 3,7,9,10 and synapse on postganglionic neurons that innervate glands, blood vessels, smooth muscles
special visceral
motor neurons which innervate striated muscle involving chewing, facial expression, larynx, pharynx
general somatic
afferents that mediate touch, pain, temperature, proprioception from the skin, muscles of the neck, mucous membranes in the mouth – found in CN 5,7,9,10
special somatic
afferents arising from neurons within the cochlea and vestibular apparatus to form CN 8
general visceral
afferents mediating sesory information (pain, temp, proprio) from the pharynx, larynx, most of the GI tract
special visceral
afferents innervating taste buds and mediating the sense of taste – found in CN 1, 7, 9, 10
olfactory (1)
pure sensory cranial nerve consisting of special visceral afferents conveying information concerning the sense of smell
Optic (2)
cranial nerve consisting of retinal ganglion cell axons that are considered special somatic afferents – not first order/primary sesory fibers
Oculomotor (3)
pure motor cranial nerve with somatic (innervates extraocular muscles via oculomotor nucleus) and parasympathetic (innervates pupillary constrictor and ciliary muscles of the eye via edinger-westphal nucleus) components
Trochlear (4)
pure somatic motor cranial nerve innervating the superior oblique extraocular muscle
Trigeminal (5)
mixed cranial nerve with motor innervation of the muscles of mastication, sensory components carry cutaneous and proprioceptive sensations from skin, muscles, joints in the face and mouth, visceral sensory information comes from pharynx and larynx.
Abducens (6)
pure somatic motor cranial nerve innervating the lateral rectus extraocular muscle
Facial (7)
mixed cranial nerve with motor innervation of facial expression, visceral innervation of salivary and lacrimal glands as well as blood vessels in the head, sensory components convey taste information from front of tongue, feeling around external ear, and visceral information from pharynx and larynx
Vestibulocochlear (8)
special somatic afferet cranial nerve carrying information about hearing, balance, and head orientation
Glossopharyngeal (9)
mixed cranial nerve with motor components innervating parotid gland and striate muscles of the larynx, pharynx; sensory components carry information from the carotid body and taste information from posterior tongue
Vagus (10)
mixed cranial nerve with parasympathetic motor innervation to the heart, lungs, GI tract; visceral motor innervation of the striate muscles in the larynx, pharynx; sensory components carry information from the pharynx, larynx, heart, lungs, GI tract as well as visceral information regarding taste from the epiglottis
Accessory (11)
motor cranial nerve consisting of fibers innervating the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles
Hypoglossal (12)
pure somatic motor cranial nerve innervating the intrinsic muscles of the tongue
peripheral ganglia
the cell bodies of all first-order sensory neurons are located in ______________ located outside the CNS
trigeminal
all general somatic afferent first-orders synapse on second-order neurons in one of the three __________ nuclei
solitary
all general and special visceral afferent first-order neurons synapse on second-order neurons in the ___________ nucleus
oculomotor, trochlear, abducens, hypoglossal
instead of general somatic efferent neurons being located in the ventral horn, they are in one of four somatic motor nuclei:
trigeminal, spinal accessory, facial, nucleus ambiguous
special visceral effernt fibers innervating striate muscles involvedi n chewing, facial expression, etc are located in four special visceral nuclei:
Edinger-Westphal, superior salivatory, inferior salivatory, dorsal vagal
general visceral efferent neurons (preganglionic parasympathetic neurons) have cell bodies located in one of four nuclei:
olfactory receptor cell
first order neuron of the olfactory nerve [1]
mitral cells, olfactory bulb
second order neuron of the olfactory nerve [2] (and are located in the _____________)
anosmia
“odor blindnes” – loss of smell
medial rectus, inferior rectus, superior rectus, inferior oblique
extraocular muscles innervated by the oculomotor [3] nerve
superior oblique
extraocular muscles innervated by the trochlear [4] nerve
lateral rectus
extraocular muscles innervated by the abducens [6] nerve
ptosis
droopy eyelid
oculomotor
ipsilateral eye is fixed in abduction or external strabismus, complete ipsilateral ptosis or eye closure, diplopoa, ipsilateral pupil fully dilated & non reactive = complete ___________ nerve lesion
trochlear
loss of action of the superior oblique allows for unopposed pull of the inferior oblique resulting in an extorsion of the affected eye, diplopia, downward gaze = ____________ nerve lesion
mesencephalic, main sensory, spinal trigeminal
second order neurons receiving synapses from trigeminal sensory first-orders lie in 3 sensory nuclei:
mesencephalic
trigeminal sensory nuclei responsible for proprioception
main sensory
trigeminal sensory nuclei responsible for discriminative sense (vibration, 2 pt pressure, etc)
spinal trigeminal
trigeminal sensory nuceli responsible for pain and temperature
VPM, face
3rd order sensory neurons from the trigeminal nerve are located in ______, projecting to the __________ cortex
tic doloureux
trigeminal nerve pain – very sharp, brief, lancing pain
abducens
lesion to the ____________ nerve results in weakness or paralysis of the ipsilateral lateral rectus – inability to abduct the eye or strabismus, diplopia, compensatory head turning
facial, pons
somatic motor fibers of the facial nerve originate from the ________ motor nucleus in the _________
facial
the stapedius muscle is innervated by somatic motor fibers of the ___________ nerve
superior salivatory, pons
parasympathetic motor fibers of the facial nerve originate from the ___________ nucleus located in the __________
Bell’s Palsy
lower motor neuron facial neuropathy – results in ipsilateral paralysis of all the muscles of facial expression on one side
hyperacusis
in addition to bell’s palsy symptoms, if a facial nerve lesion is closer to the pons, the patient may also have ___________ – increased sensitivity to sounds due to stapedius paralysis
lower, contralateral
UMN lesion of the facial nerve leads to the (upper/lower) (ipsilateral/contralateral) face being involved
organ of corti
sensory receptors for the cochlear nerve are located in the _____________
semicircular canals, utricle, saccule
sensory receptors for the vestibular nerve are located in:
vestibular
lesions to the __________ nerve may result in disturbances of equilibrium, nystagmus, nausea, vomiting
nucleus ambiguous
somatic motor fibers from the glossopharyngeal nerve arise in the ________________ innervating the sylopharyngeus
inferior salivatory
parasympathetic motor fibers from the glossopharyngeal nerve arise in the _______________ nucleus innervating smooth muscle of the parotid gland
gag reflex
absent in patients with damage to the glossopharyngeal nerve (afferent limb lost)
nucleus ambiguous
somatic motor fibers from the vagus nerve arise from neurons located in the _______________, innervating striated muscles of the pharynx, larynx, palatoglossus
vagal
parasympathetic motor fibers from the vagus nerve arise from preganglionic neurons located in the _________ motor nucleus
vagus
lesions in the ___________ nerve result in hoarseness and difficulty in swallowing
accessory
nerve often damaged following neck surgery resulting in LMN paralysis, pt experiences downward rotation of the scapula and shoulder drooping resulting from loss of the trapezius
hypoglossal, medulla
somatic motor fibers from the hypoglossal nerve arise from neurons in the ___________ nucleus in the __________
contralateral
UMN lesion of the hypoglossal nerve leads to partial tongue paralysis and a (ipsilateral/contralateral?) protrusion
ipsilateral
LMN lesion of the hypoglossal nerve leads to partial tongue paralysis and a (ipsilateral/contralateral?) protrusion
x

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