While some patronage systems are legal, others may attribute this to corruption or favoritism in which a party In power rewards groups, families, tentacles for their electoral support using appointments or government contracts. In some democracies, high-level appointments are reviewed or approved by the legislature. In other countries, such as those using the Westminster system, this is not the case. Other types of political patronage may dilate the laws or ethics codes (nepotism and cronyism). Low level political patronage, when not entangled in financial means, is not Inherently unseemly.
In the United States, et U. S. Cost tutu o delete the Constitution provides the president with the power to appoint individuals to government positions. He also may appoint personal advisers without congressional approval. Not surprisingly, these individuals tend to be supporters of the president. Similarly, at the state and local levels, governors and mayors retain appointments powers. So e SC oh s eave a guy t at pat o age Some scholars have argued that patronage may be used for laudable purposes, such as the “recognition” of minority communities through the appointment of their members too high profile positions.
Other types of political patronage, as mentioned earlier, may violate the laws or ethics codes (nepotism and cronyism). “Hen Jag sees Garfield became president, James Ga e became e p sees e t, he appointed corrupt men to several offices. This provoked the ire of the Stalwarts, one of which, Charles J. Suited, assassinated Garfield in 1881, six months after he became President. In Canada, there is a tradition that allows the Prime Minister to appoint the heads of a number of commissions and agencies; in many cases, these appointments go to up people who have supported the political party of the Prime Minister. Airfield argues that patronage is used for four general purposes: o Creating or strengthening a political organization; o Achieving democratic or egalitarian goals; o Bridging political divisions and create coalitions; o Altering the existing patronage system. Democrat William Meager Tweed (April 3, 1823 – April 12, 1878), ran the most corrupt political machines in the country’s history. Tweed and cronies ruled the city and state of New York with absolute power. At the height of his influence, Tweed was the third-largest landowner in New York City, a director of the Erie Railway, the Tenth National
Bank, the New-York Printing Company, and proprietor of the Metropolitan Hotel Hotel. Rowed was eventually convicted for stealing between $40 million and $200 million from New York City taxpayers through political corruption. He died in the Ludlow Street Jail. Economic Development Model Local economic development may be defined as increases in the “local economy’s capacity to create wealth for local residents. Such increases occur if local resources, such as labor land, are used more productively.
Local economic development is affected by all local government activities. However, local economic development o icy s usually e policy is USA y defined more narrowly as away special activities, undertaken by public or private groups, to promote economic development. Ere largest use of patronage was in the struggle for power in Russia between 1924 and 1929. Loose Stalin use pat o age app t losses Sat used patronage to appoint many Stalinist delegates to his Politburo and Savonarola in order to sway the v’tees in his favor. Wrought local Job growth, which causes unemployed labor and land to be used. It a so coco s by shifting employed labor t also occurs s t g e p eye ABA and land to more productive uses, for example, better Jobs. Economic Development Program activities fall into two categories: o Providing customized assistance targeted at individual businesses that are thought to provide greater economic development benefits. O Strategic initiatives in which more general tax, spending, and regulatory policies of government are changed to promote local economic development.
Local economic development will often occur even without government efforts. Poppas c ease et qua toy qua TTY programs increase the quantity or quality of local economic development. Local economic development is increasingly garden as a major local government responsibility. Ere role of local economic development is not restricted to local government. Other groups are also involved include: Local Chambers of Commerce Private businesses Citizen advisory boards Public/private partnership State government Utilities Private economic development foundation.
Among the priorities of local economic development are: o Increasing Jobs located in the city. O Increasing the local tax base. O Diversifying the local economy. Most common barriers to local economic development include: Limited availability of land. Lack of skilled labor. High land costs. Lack of capital and funding. Citizen opposition. Limited number of major employers. Traffic congestion. Local government economic development strategies focus on: Among the most common economic o Tax incentives, either citywide or in designated . Job training programs customized to the needs of individual firms or industries. O Community development loan funds for businesses. O Community development corporations. O Misinterpreted programs. Manufacturing industries Retail or service industries Technology and telecommunications Tourism Unreasoning and distribution industries. Unlearn State Model A welfare state is a concept of government where the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens.
It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of Anneal, and public responsibility for those unable to avail themselves of the minimal provisions for a good life. Ere Marry Empire was the first welfare state that came to form when Emperor Osaka introduced reforms after the Killing war. Ere Islamic Caliphate was the world’s first Early welfare states in the modern world include Germany, all Nordic Countries, the Netherlands, Uruguay and New Zealand and the United Kingdom in the asses.
During the Great Depression, it was seen as an alternative “middle way” between communism and capitalism. In the period following the Second World t e pee o O owe g et Sec Near, many countries in Europe moved from partial or selective provision of social services to relatively comprehensive coverage of the population. There are two main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: o A model in which the state assumes primary responsibility for the welfare of its citizens. Irish responsibility in theory ought to be impressive, because all aspects of welfare are considered and universally applied to citizens as a “right”. Welfare state can also mean the creation off ‘social safety net” of minimum standards of varying forms of welfare. Modern welfare states developed through gradual process beginning in the late 19th century and continuing through the 20th. Changed attitudes in reaction to the Great Depression were instrumental in the move to the welfare state in many countries. Ere activities of present-day welfare states extend to: o Provision of both cash welfare benefits (such as old-age pensions or unemployment benefits) In-kind welfare services (such as health or childcare services).
Through these provisions, welfare states can affect the distribution of wellbeing and personal autonomy among their citizens, as well as Influencing how their citizens consume and how they spend their time time. Ere discovery and inflow of oil revenue, allowed Saudi Arabia, Brunet, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, Oman, and the I-JAKE to became welfare states for their respective citizens. Bridged worked as a volunteer for the poor, and set up national insurance. He stated that ‘All people of working age should pay a weekly national insurance Nee y at oh us a CE nutrition.