Human Reflex Physiology

DEFINE REFLEX
REFLEXES ARE RAPID, PREDICTABLE, INVOLUNTARY MOTOR RESPONSES TO STIMULI; THEY ARE MEDIATED OVER NEURAL PATHWAYS CALLED REFLEX ARCS.
NAME FIVE ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF A REFLEX
RECEPTOR, SENSORY NEURON, INTERGRATION CENTER, MOTOR NEURON, AND EFFECTOR
IN GENERAL, WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF REFLEX TESTING IN A ROUTINE PHYSICAL EXAMINATION?
IT IS AN IMPORTANT DIAGNOSTIC TOOK FOR ASSESSING THE CONDITION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. IT HELPS TO INDICATE DEGENERATION OR PATHOLOGY OF PORTIONS OF THE NERVES, OR CAN HELP PIN POINT AN AREA OF A SPINAL CORD INJURY.
REFLEXES CLASSIFIED AS SOMATIC REFLEXES INCLUDE A __1__, __2__, __3__, __4__, __5__, __6__, AND __7__.
1. CROSS-EXTENSOR REFLEX
2. CORNEAL REFLEX
3. GAG REFLEX
4. PLANTAR REFLEX
5. ABDOMINAL REFLEX
6. ACHILLES REFLEX
7. PATELLAR REFLEX
THE SIMPLE STRETCH REFLEXES ARE __1__ AND __2__
1. PATELLAR REFLEX
2. ACHILLES REFLEX
THE SUPERFICIAL CORD REFLEXES ARE __1__ AND __2__
1. ABDOMINAL REFLEX
2. PLANTAR REFLEX
REFLEXES CLASSIFIED AS AUTONOMIC REFLEXES INCLUDE __1__ AND __2__.
1. PUPILLARY LIGHT REFLEX
2. CILIOSPINAL REFLEX
NAME TWO CORD-MEDIATED REFLEXES
PATELLAR REFLEX AND CROSS-EXTENSOR REFLEX
NAME TWO SOMATIC REFLEXES IN WHICH THE HIGHER BRAIN CENTERS PARTICIPATE
PUPILLARY LIGHT REFLEXES AND SUPERFICIAL CORD REFLEXES
CAN THE STRETCH REFLEX BE ELICITED IN A PITHED ANIMAL (THAT IS, AN ANIMAL IN WHICH THE BRAIN HAS BEEN DESTROYED)?
YES, EVEN WITHOUT THE BRAIN A STRETCH REFLEX ONLY NEEDS A AFFERENT, CONTROL CENTER, AND MOTOR FIBERS TO BE ELICITED. THESE COMPONENTS STILL STAY INTACT IF THE BRAIN HAS BEEN DESTROYED.
PATELLAR REFLEX
HIT PATELLAR TENDON TO EXCITE MUSCLE SPINDLES OF QUADRICEPS. (AFFERENT NERVE) FEMORAL NERVE TO (INTEGRATION CENTERS) L2 – L4 FROM THERE IT GOES TO (EFFERENT NERVE) FEMORAL BACK TO QUADRICEPS (EFFECTOR) TO MAKE CONTRACTION. ALSO SENDS TO HAMSTING (EFFECTOR) TO GIVE IT RESISTANCE
ACHILLES REFLEX
HIT TENDON NOCICEPTORS IN TENDO-ACHILLES. GOES TO CNS BY SCIATIC NERVE (AFFERENT) THEN GOES TO INTERNEURONS IN SPINAL CORD (INTEGRATION CENTER) S1 – S2. THEN TO ALFA MOTOR N (EFFERENT N) TIBIAL NERVE FROM SCIATIC NERVE TO LEAD TO THE )EFFECTOR) GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE.
WHAT FACTOR INCREASES THE EXCITATORY LEVEL OF THE SPINAL CORD?
MUSCLE ACTIVITY IN ANOTHER BODY AREA
WHAT FACTOR DECRESES THE EXCITATORY LEVEL OF THE MUSCLES?
FATIGUE
CILIOSPINAL REFLEX
SYMPATHETIC
PUPILLARY LIGHT REFLEX
PARASYMPATHETIC
SALIVARY REFLEX
SYMPATHETIC
PUPILLARY LIGHT REFLEX
TO PROTECT AND HELP CONTROL THE EYES FROM DAMAGE FROM DIFFERENT LIGHT SETTINGS
CORNEAL REFLEX
TO PROTECT THE EYES FROM FOREIGN BODIES AND LIGHTS
CROSSED-EXTENSOR REFLEX
TO HELP PROTECT AND MAINTAIN BALANCE WHEN A WITHDRAW REFLEX OCCURS AT ANOTHER PART OF THE BODY. HELPS SO YOU WONT HURT YOURSELF WHEN A REFLEX OCCURS, SUCH AS FALLING.
WAS THE PUPILLARY CONSENSUAL RESPONSE CONTRALATERAL OR IPSILATERAL?
CONTRALATERAL
WHY WOULD SUCH A RESPONSE BE OF SIGNIFICANT VALUE IN THIS PARTICULAR REFLEX? (CONTRALATERAL)
HELP EVEN OUT LIGHT RAYS MAKING IT LESS STRESSFUL FOR THE AFFECTED EYE.
DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN THE TYPES OF ACTIVITIES ACCOMPLISHED BY SOMATIC AND AUTONOMIC REFLEXES.
SOMATIC REFLEXES INCLUDE ALL PATHWAYS THAT ARE VOLUNTARY ACTIONS OF THE BODY. AND AUTONOMIC REFLEXES INCLUDE ALL PATHWAYS THAT RESULT IN INVOLUNTARY ACTIONS.
NAME AT LEAST THREE FACTORS THAT MAY MODIFY REACTION TIME TO A STIMULUS
AGE, FATIGUE, AND ILLNESS.
PLANTAR OR BABINSKI REFLEX
HAVE THE SUBJECT LIE ON BACK WITH KNEES SLIGHTLY BENT AND THE FOOT ROTATED SO THAT THE OUTER SIDE OF THE FOOT RESTS ON THE TABLE. USING A BLUNT OBJECT APPLY A FIRM PRESSURE AS YOU STROKE THE LATERAL BORDER OF THE SOLE IN A HEEL-TO-TOE DIRECTION. THE NORMAL IS THE CURLING OR PLANTAR FLEXION OF TOES. ABNORMAL OR BABINSKI REFLEX RESULTS IN DORSIFEXION AND ABDUCTION. BABINSKI IS NORMAL IN INFANTS UP TO SIX MONTHS. TESTING TIBIAL NERVE L5-S1
BICEPS REFLEX
WITH SUBJECTS ARM RELAXED ON THE TABLE GENTLY PRESS THE BICEPS TENDON IN THE ANTECUBITAL FOSSA WITH THUMB, STRIKE THUMB WITH RUBBER HAMMER. TESTING MUSCULOTANEOUS NERVE L5-L6
TRICEPS REFLEX
ANGLE SUBJECTS ARM AT 90 DEGREESS WITH TRICEPS TENDON FACING UP TAP ON THE TENDON. TESTING RADIAL NERVE C8-T1
CILIO-SPINAL REFLEX
HAVE PARTNER SEATED AND LOOKING STRAIGHT AHEAD. GENTLY STROKE THE SHORT HAIR ON THE BACK OF THE NECK WITH FINGER. OBSERVE DIALATION OF THE PUPIL. IPSILATERAL PUPILLARY DILATION SHOULD OCCUR, TESTING CRANIAL NERVE 3 OCCULOMOTER MIDBRAIN
PHARYNGEAL REFLEX
GENTLY TOUCH UVULA, GAG REFLEX TESTING CRANIAL NERVE 9 GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL AND 10 VAGUS MEDULLA
CORNEAL REFLEX
TAKE SMALL PIECE OF COTTON TOUCH THE EDGE OF THE CORNEA WITH THE COTTON, TESTING CRANIAL NERVE 5 TRIGEMINAL AND 7 FACIAL PONS. EYES WILL BLINK
GOLGI TENDON REFLEX
WHEN THE QUADRICEPS MUSCLE HAVE STRONGLY CONTRACTED AS IN THE KNEE JERK REFLEX THE GOLGI TENDON IS ACTIVATES HAMSTRING MUCLES FLEXION OF LEG SHOULD OCCUR TESTING TIBIAL NERVE L5-S1
x

Hi!
I'm Heidi!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out