A. medulla oblongata
C. spinal cord
B. the soma, or internal organs, of the body
C. all peripheral body structures
D. muscle and bone
A. bradycardia and fatigue
B. reduced gastric motility and gastrointestinal symptoms
C. muscle fasciculations and cramping
D. muscle weakness and/or dysfunction
A. voltage-gated calcium channels
B. voltage-gated cation channels
C. voltage-gated acetylcholine channels
D. voltage-gated sodium channels
A. central; peripheral
B. afferent; efferent
C. sympathetic; peripheral
D. sympathetic; parasympathetic
A. thoracic; cervical
B. lumbar; sacral
C. thoracic; lumbar
D. cervical; lumbar
A. cholinergic; nicotinic
B. muscarinic; nicotinic
C. adrenergic; cholinergic
D. cholinergic; adrenergic
A. autonomic ganglia
B. sympathetic collateral ganglia
C. sympathetic chains
D. interomediolateral cell column
A. The preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system either originate in the brainstem or the sacral spinal cord.
B. The preganglionic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system originate from several nuclei found running from the brain (cranio) to the lumbar region (sacral).
C. The parasympathetic neurons consist of the cranial (cranio) nerves and the pelvic nerves (sacral) that originate at the appropriate levels of the spinal cord.
D. The parasympathetic neurons arise from two nerve plexi; one found in the brainstem and the other found in the lumbar region.
A. Reduce sympathetic stimulation and increase heart rate and blood pressure.
B. Increase sympathetic stimulation and increase heart rate and blood pressure.
C. Reduce sympathetic stimulation and reduce heart rate and blood pressure.
D. Increase sympathetic stimulation and reduce heart rate and blood pressure.
A> Acetylcholine is broken down by the mitochondria within the post-synaptic effector cell while norepinephrine is broken down by adrenergic esterase of the pre-synaptic neuron.
B. Acetylcholine is broken down by monoamine oxidase within the post-synaptic effector cell while norepinephrine is broken down by the mitochondria of the pre-synaptic neuron.
C. Acetylcholine is broken down by acetylcholinesterase within the cell membrane of the post-synaptic effector cell while norepinephrine is broken down by the mitochondria of the pre-synaptic neuron.
D. Acetylcholine is broken down by acetylcholinesterase within the cell membrane of the pre-synaptic neuron while norepinephrine is broken down by the mitochondria of the post-synaptic effector cell.
A. to initiate the flight-or-fight response and disrupt homeostasis
B. inhibiting the sympatho-adrenal response and maintaining homeostasis
C. to maintain the body at rest and maintain homeostasis
D. initiating and maintaining activity and maintaining homeostasis
A. Both branches of the autonomic nervous system innervate most organs with the same function so that an organ will continue to function if one branch is damaged.
B. There are two somatic neurons going to each muscle so that a muscle can still function if one neuron is damaged.
C. Both branches of the autonomic nervous system innervate most organs with opposite functions: one to maintain rest and the other to increase activity.
D. The autonomic and somatic nervous branches of the parasympathetic nervous system innervate most organs with opposite functions: one to maintain rest and the other to increase activity.
A. hypothalamus, medulla oblongata, and pons
B. cerebral cortex, limbic, and spinal cord
C. cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, and limbic
D. hypothalamus, midbrain, and pons
A. the cross-extensor reflex
B. blood pressure regulation
C. the “gut” feeling that one gets when addressing a difficult situation
D. the myotatic reflex
A. effector organs of the somatic nervous system
B. effector organs of the parasympathetic nervous system
C. effector organs of the sympathetic nervous system
D. effector organs of the autonomic nervous system
A. Epinephrine is coupled to a G protein while norepinephrine uses cell membrane receptors.
B. Both act on receptors on the nuclear membrane.
C. Epinephrine is excitatory and inhibitory.
D. Both epinephrine and norepinephrine are coupled to a G protein
A. increased axonal branching of the motor neuron
B. reduced degradation of acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction
C. increased degradation of acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction
D. increased acetylcholine release into the neuromuscular junction
A. G protein activation results in activation of nuclear-membrane-bound cAMP second messengers.
B. G protein activation is always inhibitory.
C. G protein activation that occurs is always stimulatory.
D. G protein activation occurs in response to all neurotransmitters within the peripheral nervous system except for nicotinic receptors.
A. The organization of autonomic output takes place at supraspinal levels.
B. The organization of autonomic output takes place within the effector junction.
C. The organization of autonomic output takes place within the spinal cord.
D. The organization of autonomic output takes place within the synapse.
A. blood flow to gastrointestinal organs
B. contraction of the heart
C. mobilization of energy stores
D. blood flow to skeletal and cardiac muscle
A. adrenal medulla
B. the lungs
C. the bladder
D. the heart
A. beta1 receptor antagonist
B. a muscarinic cholinergic antagonist
C. a muscarinic agonist
D. beta2 adrenergic agonist
A. excitatory sarcolemmal potential
B. end plate potential
C. excitatory post-synaptic potential
D. motor terminal potential
A. adipose tissue
B. skeletal muscle
C. smooth muscle
D. cardiac muscle
A. autoimmune; cardiac muscle
B. autoimmune; skeletal muscle
C. autoimmune; smooth muscle
D. hormone deficiency; skeletal muscle
A. Cholinergic; nicotinic
B. Adrenergic; nicotinic
C. Cholinergic; muscarinic
D. Adrenergic; alpha
A. end-plate potential
B. excitatory post-synaptic potential (EPSP)
C. inhibitory post-synaptic potential (IPSP)
D. action potential
A. An endocrine gland
B. Cardiac muscle
C. Skeletal muscle
D. Smooth muscle
A. end-plate potentials
B. excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSPs)
C. inhibitory post-synaptic potentials (IPSPs)
D. action potentials
A. intestinal; on intravenous feeding
B. cardiac; bypass pump
C. respiratory; respirator
D. urinary bladder; on bladder catheter drainage
A. catechol-o-methyl transferase
B. monamine oxidase
A. immune type therapy
B. treatment with corticosteroids (SAIDs)
C. hormonal therapy
D. treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
A. Acetylcholine diffuses away from the cleft.
B. Acetylcholine is transported into the postsynaptic neuron by receptor-mediated endocytosis.
C. Acetylcholine is degraded by acetylcholinesterase.
D. Acetylcholine is transported back into the axon terminal by a reuptake mechanism.
A. Acetylcholine binds to its receptor in the junctional folds of the sarcolemma. Its receptor is linked to a G protein.
B. When the action potential reaches the end of the axon terminal, voltage-gated sodium channels open and sodium ions diffuse into the terminal.
C. Acetylcholine is released and moves across the synaptic cleft bound to a transport protein.
D. Acetylcholine is released by axon terminals of the motor neuron.
A. arise in the epimysium of a skeletal muscle and extend to individual skeletal muscle fibers
B. extend from the brain to the sarcolemma of a skeletal muscle fiber
C. extend from the brain or spinal cord to the sarcolemma of a skeletal muscle fiber
D. extend from the spinal cord to the sarcolemma of a skeletal muscle fiber
A. Synaptic vesicles fuse to the plasma membrane of the axon terminal and release acetylcholine.
B. Acetylcholine is released into the cleft by active transporters in the plasma membrane of the axon terminal.
C. Acetylcholine binds to its receptor.
D. Cation channels open and sodium ions enter the axon terminal while potassium ions exit the axon terminal
A. the opening of voltage-gated calcium channels
B. the opening of ligand-gated anion channels
C. the opening of ligand-gated cation channels
D. the opening of calcium-release channels
A. The outside surface of the sarcolemma is negatively charged compared to the inside surface. Potassium ions diffuse outward along favorable chemical and electrical gradients.
B. The outside surface of the sarcolemma is negatively charged compared to the inside surface. Sodium ions diffuse outward along favorable chemical and electrical gradients.
C. The inside surface of the sarcolemma is negatively charged compared to the outside surface. Sodium ions diffuse inward along favorable chemical and electrical gradients.
D. The inside surface of the sarcolemma is negatively charged compared to the outside surface. Potassium ions diffuse inward along favorable chemical and electrical gradients.