Psych Chap 1 and 2 Quizzes

Because psychologists want to be precise and measure as carefully as they can, they use ________ to study psychology.
scientific method
Dr. Jonas wanted to determine what would happen if rats were given food every time they completed a maze. He believed they would learn to complete the maze faster. This belief is called
prediction
Using rewards to help a smoker give up cigarettes illustrates psychology’s goal of
control
The psychological perspective that is associated with William James is
functionalism
Watson believed that behavior
is learned
John Watson believed that phobiasare learned through the process of
conditioning
Followers of Freud who modified his original ideas have created a perspective called
neo-Freudianism
Mary was a psychologist who focused on the role of the conscious and unconscious mind. To which perspective did Mary ascribe?
psychodynamic
Anna is 45-years-old and is suffering from hot flashes and extreme moodiness. From a _____ perspective, Anna’s symptoms can be attributed to menopause.
biopsychological
_______ focuses on how people think, remember, store, and use information
Cognitive psychology
A ________ has a medical degree and is a medical doctor
psychiatrist
Researchers use ________ for reducing bias and error in the measurement of data
scientific method
Sasha sat in the preschool classroom and watched the children play, writing down how well they interacted with each other. The children could see that Sasha was watching them, so they made an attempt to be extra well-behaved for her. Sasha’s research will be impacted by
observer effect
Researchers who allow their expectations about what they will see to affect the results of their observation studies are suffering from
observer bias
When Mary took the survey in the mall, she noticed that the interviewer was wearing an Obama button. She answered the questions more favorably toward Obama than she might otherwise have, probably because of
courtesy bias
Ifthe two variables increase in the same direction, the correlation coefficient is
positive
Correlation will tell researchers all of the following EXCEPT if their is ________ between the variable
causation
In an experiment in which half of the participants are given a caffeinated product and half are given a decaffeinated product to determine if caffeine will make them more talkative, the independent variable is
caffeine
Mrs. Lewis participated in a study in which she was given no treatment for her condition. Mrs. Lewis was in the ________ group.
control
Experimenters control the effects of extraneous or confounding variables upon members of experimental and control groups by using
random assignment
Mrs. O’Connor participated in a study in which she was told she would try out a new allergy medicine. She was in the group that received a sugar pill but she believed that the pill did indeed help control her allergy symptoms. This phenomenon is known as
placebo effect
A drug company is determining the effects of a treatment for depression. Neither the researcher nor the participants know who is getting the treatment and who is being given a sugar pill. This type of study is
double blind
Dr. Edwards wants to show a causal relationship between tobacco smoking and cancer. Dr. Edwards should conduct an experiment using
animal participants
A doctor informs the parents of a 14-year-old that without hospitalization her anorexia will worsen and cause grave medical conditions. The doctor is making a
prediction
Wundt referred to the process of examining and measuring one’s own thoughts and mental activities as
objective introspection
Who was the first female president of the American Psychological Society?
Mary Whiton Calkins
Mary Cover Jones’ research with a white rabbit focused on
counterconditioning
According to B. F. Skinner, behavioral responses that are followed by pleasurable consequences are
strengthened
Today, Gestalt psychology ideas are part of which branch of psychology?
cognitive psychology
Over 40% of psychologists are employed in
educational settings
When you make an educated guess about the explanation for your observations, you are forming a
hypothesis
In testing whether children are influenced by violence on TV, the best method would be
experiment
A researcher wants to describe children’s normal behavior on the playground. The best method for this research is to use
naturalistic observation
A(n) ________ is a measure of the relationship between two or more variables
correlation
Which research method will allow researchers to determine the cause of a behavior?
experiment
A drug company conducts a study in which it gives half of the participants the drug being tested and the other half a placebo. This is an example of
single blind study
the ability to make reasoned judgments is
critical thinking
________ are personal judgments based on beliefs rather than facts.
Biases
Talking, facial expressions, and movements are elements of
Behavior
Within the field of psychology, mental processes refer to
internal covert activity
Description involves ________ a person’s behavior.
observing
The process of objectively examining and measuring one’s own thoughts and mental activities is known as
objective introspection
________ is known as the “father of psychology.”
Wilhelm Wundt
Some psychologists believe that every experience can be broken down into its individual emotion and sensation. This is known as
structuralism
William James was responsible for developing the theory of
functionalism
______focused on perception of patterns and whole figures
Gesalt psychology
Freud proposed that there is a(n) ________ mind into which we repress threatening urges and desires.
unconscious
Pavlov’s work with dogs focused on the concept of
conditioning
________ was denied a Ph.D degree because she was a woman.
Mary Whiton Calkins
When Rashid graduated from college, he believed he had finally achieved his full potential. Maslow called this
Self actualization
________ suggests that behavioral responses are reinforced when rewarded with pleasurable consequences.
Operant conditioning
________ is the study of the physical changes in the brain and nervous system during thinking
Cognitive neuroscience
Which perspective focuses on the biological bases for universal mental characteristics?
evolutionary
Which professional has a doctorate degree and works with humans or animals in a variety of settings
psychologist
The first step in the scientific method is
perceiving the question
A ________ is a tentative explanation of a phenomenon based on observation.
hypothesis
In psychology, researchers try to find the answers to ________ questions.
empirical
________ refers to the tendency of observers to see what they expect to see.
Observer bias
A(n) ________ specifically names the steps that the experimenter must use to control or measure the variables in the experiment.
operational definition
Animals are used in about ________ percent of all psychological studies
7
________ analyzes personality through handwriting.
Graphology
A network of cells that carries information to and from all parts of the body is the
nervous system
The branches of the life sciences that deal with the structure and functioning of the nervous system are
neuroscience
A special type of glial cells generate a protective fatty substance called
myelin
When a neuron is at rest, the ions inside the cell are mostly _______ and ions outside a cell are mostly ________
negative; positive
When the action potential gets to the end of the axon,
the message gets transmitted to another cell
Neurons fire
all or none
The saclike structures that are found at the end of a neuron’s axon and that contain neurotransmitters are called
synaptic vesicles
Digoxin is an example of a(n) __________ drug, which mimics or enhances the effects of neurotransmitters
agonist
The ______ is composed of the brain and the spinal cord
central nervous system
The spinal cord’s outer section is made up of _______ and the inner section is made up of _______.
axons and nerves; cell bodies of neurons
the brain’s ability to change both the structure and function of many cells in response to experience and trauma is
Neuroplasticity
The problem with is ______ they want to form into the cells of the tissue in which they were found
nonembryonic stem cells
When people are walking, raising their hands in class or smelling a flower, they are using the
somatic nervous system
The job of the _______ of the autonomic nervous system is to get the body ready to deal with stress
sympathetic division
The part of the autonomic nervous system known as the eat-drink-and-rest system is the
parasympathetic division
A/an _____ is used to look at the activity of the surface of the brain
electroencephalograph (EEG)
A functional MRI (fMRI) and a PET scan both provide
a way to observe the brain as it functions
The part of the brain that controls life-sustaining functions, such as heartbeat, breathing, and swallowing, is the
Medulla
a condition that is likely to cause her to have difficulty withwalking, speaking, and/or standing.
spinocerebellar degeneration
Which sense is the only one that is NOT processed through the thalamus?
Smell
A work-related accident left Bob with a paralyzed left arm and an inability to recognize the left side of his visual field. Bob’s condition is called
unilateral spatial neglect
The “master gland” that controls or influences all of the other endocrine glands is the
pituitary gland
If the pancreas secretes too much insulin, it results in a condition known as
hypoglycemia
Adrenal glands are located right above
kidney
The nervous system is an extensive network of _______ that carries information to and from all parts of the body.
specialized cells
The cell that sends and receives messages in the nervous system is called a/an
neuron
The majority of the brain is composed of
glial cells
Chemical substances that can block or reduce a cell’s response to the action of other chemicals or neurotransmitters are called
antagonists
The spinal cord is essentially a bundle of
neurons
Melissa is walking around barefoot and suddenly steps on a sharp nail. She feels the pain and immediately pulls her foot off the ground away from the nail. Which neurons were involved in her response?
sensory, motor, and interneurons
The neurons that carry messages from the central nervous system to the muscles of the body are the
efferent neurons
The peripheral nervous system is made up of two major systems called the _____and the _____
somatic nervous system; autonomic nervous system
Neurons that are not part of the central nervous system make up the
peripheral nervous system
The ______ is the division of the peripheral nervous system that carries information from the senses to the central nervous system (CNS) and from the CNS to the voluntary muscles of the body
somatic nervous system
Mr. Phillips is having a test to see if he is suffering from seizures. Electrodes are attached to his scalp to measure electrical activity. Mr. Phillips is having a/an
EEG
Which of the following diagnostic tools involves injecting a person with radioactive glucose and shows a brain in action?
PET scan
This area of the brain influences sleep and dreaming.
pons
A group of several brain structures located under the cortex and involved in learning, emotion, memory and motivation is the
limbic system
Why is the cortex so wrinkled?
Otherwise it would not fit inside the skull
The ______ are the areas of the cortex located just behind the temples that is responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech.
temporal lobe
The ______ lobes are responsible for higher mental processes such as decision making
Frontal
This endocrine gland is located in the neck and regulates metabolism
thyroid gland
What is the primary role of the adrenal glands?
secrete hormones
The cell that sends and receives messages in the nervous system is called the
neuron
Messages from other cells are received by the
dendrites
Once a message has been received, a cell
returns to its resting state.
When a neuron receives a stimulus that is very strong, the result is
the neuron fires in an all or none fashion
After a neurotransmitter travels through the ______, it fits into a place on the dendrite of another neuron called the _________.
synapse; receptor site
endorphins help the body
control pain
The venom of a black widow spider causes neurons to release a flood of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. This excess of acetylcholine can lead to
convulsions and possible death
The _____ part of the spinal cord transmits messages to and from the brain. The ____ part controls lifesaving reflexes such as pain response.
outer; inner
This carries messages from the senses to the spinal cord
afferent neurons
afferent neurons, efferent neurons and inter neurons make up the
reflex arc
Special cells found in all the tissues of the body that are capable of manufacturing other cell types when those cells need to be replaced due to damage or wear and tear are
stem cells
The ______ nervous systemall the nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord
peripheral
The _______ is to involuntary muscles as the _______ is to voluntary muscles.
autonomic nervous system; somatic nervous system
natalies sees a beautiful flower so she walks over to touch and smell it. She is using…
somatic nervous system
_____ is the insertion of a thin, insulated wire into the brain of animals through which an electrical current is sent that destroys the brain cells at the tip of the wire.
Deep lesioning
One important advantage of an MRI over a CT scan is that the MRI provides
more detail
Which type of brain wave measured by an EEG indicates deepest sleep
delta
This brain structure serves as a relay station for sensory info
thalamus
The visual centers of the brain areas are contained in the
occipital lobe
Cassie’s mother suffered a stroke. Since then, she sometimes says strange things, such as, “I need to go to the store to buy some canaries,” when she means to say that she needs groceries. Cassie’s mother seems to be suffering from
Wernicke’s aphasia
Roger Sperry was looking for a cure for this disease when researching differentiation of the left and right hemispheres of the brain.
epilepsy
Melatonin and thyroxin are examples of
hormones
If the pancreas secretes too little insulin, it results in ________.
diabetes
If the pancreas secretes too much insulin, it results in ________.
hypoglycemia
Adrenal glands produce hormones called
corticoids
x

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